Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula. Organic chemistry is pretty much everywhere! In this episode of Crash Course Organic Chemistry, we’re talking about the amazing diversity among organic molec.
Organic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds that contain carbon.Carbon has the ability to form a chemical bond with a wide variety of chemical elements and other carbon atoms.This allows a nearly unlimited number of combinations, called organic compounds.The subject of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry because all known organisms, or living things, are made up of water. Download Organic Chemistry Mindmap. Download Organic Chemistry Notes (Credits to Mustafa Asif) Organic compounds: Compounds from Living Things; compounds found in living organisms; Examples: sugar, fats, plant oils, urea; Characteristics of Organic Compounds. All contain carbon element; Most come with hydrogen; Others with oxygen, nitrogen,. What Are the Keys for Learning Organic Chemistry? You are not alone feeling like this subject is special. This makes complete sense, since organic chemistry is a very unique branch of science.
The Organic Chemistry Portal offers an overview of recent topics, interesting reactions, and information on important chemicals for organic chemists.
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C-O Ring Construction: Karrinkinolide (Hosokawa), Sanctis B (Liu/Tan), Caesalpinnone A (Zheng), Cochlearol A (Ishigami), Alstoscholarisine E (Martin), Aranorosinol A (Xu)
C-O Ring Construction: The Rizzacasa Synthesis of Trachyspic Acid 19-n-Butyl Ester
The Chen/Yang Synthesis of Pre-schisanartanin C
Other Methods for Carbocyclic Construction: Aspidodispermine (Heretsch), Lepadiformine A (Tokuyama), Farnesin (Gao), Ganocin B (Zhao), Dankasterone B (Heretsch), Canataxpropellane (Gaich)
Organocatalyzed Carbocyclic Ring Construction: The Appayee Synthesis of 9β-11-Hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol
Find the most important name reactions in organic chemistry, stability data for the most frequently used protective groups, protection and deprotection methods; browse synthetic transformations
Abstracts of articles in the field of organic synthesis, published in the most highly regarded organic chemistry journals
A searchable index of more than 1 million chemicals from suppliers worldwide, basic information on widely-used chemical reagents in organic synthesis such as oxidizing and reducing agents.
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Organic Chemistry - A Definition
Organic chemistry focuses on molecules mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen, along with a handful of other elements - such as oxygen, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus. Organic chemistry deals with synthetic methods, reaction mechanisms and kinetics, and uses analytical methods for reaction control and purification such as chromatography (TLC, GC, HPLC), and structure confirmation such as NMR and IR, but also structure determination such as NMR and X-ray crystallography. New fields of organic chemistry for example include organometallic chemistry, which is the study of carbon-based compounds that contain metals, and bioorganic chemistry, which combines organic chemistry and biochemistry. Methods of organic chemistry are used in medicinal chemistry, natural product chemistry, and materials science. In the industry, organic chemists work in discovery chemistry (making new molecules) and process optimization (finding better synthetic methods for large scale production).
When you explore biology, you’ll find that many processes are constantly occurring in living organisms. The study of organic chemistry — which focuses on carbon molecules — is central to all living organisms.
The ability to convert ingested fuel to usable energy is what differentiates a living organism from a dead one. The ingested fuel contains a variety of large molecules (macromolecules) that get broken down. When the macromolecules have been broken down into their smallest parts, they can enter the cells, which contain more macromolecules, which are involved in more processes.
Organic Chemistry Functional Groups
What is organic chemistry?
In organic chemistry, the focus is on the element carbon. Carbon is central to all living organisms; however, thousands of nonliving things (such as drugs, plastics, and dyes) are made from carbon compounds. Diamonds are carbon atoms in a crystal structure. Diamonds are so hard because the atoms of carbon are so closely bonded together in the crystal form. That same ability to pack closely together makes carbon an excellent structural element in its other forms as well.
One atom of carbon can combine with up to four other atoms. Therefore, organic compounds usually are large and can have several atoms and molecules bonded together. Organic molecules can be large, and they comprise the structural components of living organisms: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.
Carbon is key
In their outer shells, carbon atoms have four electrons that can bond with other atoms. When carbon is bonded to hydrogen (which is common in organic molecules), the carbon atom shares an electron with hydrogen, and hydrogen likewise shares an electron with carbon. Carbon-hydrogen molecules are referred to as hydrocarbons. Nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen also are often joined to carbon in living organisms.
Long carbon chains = low reactivity
Large molecules form when carbon atoms are joined together in a straight line or in rings. The longer the carbon chain, the less chemically reactive the compound is. However, in biology, other measures of reactivity are used. One example is enzymatic activity, which refers to how much more quickly a certain molecule can allow a reaction to occur.
One key to knowing that a compound is less reactive is that its melting and boiling points are high. Generally, the lower a compound’s melting and boiling points, the more reactive it is. For example, the hydrocarbon methane, which is the primary component of natural gas, has just one carbon and four hydrogen atoms. Because it is the shortest carbon compound, it has the lowest boiling point (-162°C) and is a gas at room temperature. It is highly reactive.
Organic Chemistry Reaction Calculator
On the other hand, a compound made of an extremely long carbon chain has a boiling point of 174°C (compared to water, which has a boiling point of 100°C). Because it takes so much more for it to boil, it is much less reactive and is not gaseous at room temperature.
Forming functional groups based on properties
In organic chemistry, molecules that have similar properties (whether they are chemical or physical properties) are grouped together. The reason they have similar properties is because they have similar groups of atoms; these groups of atoms are called functional groups.
Chemical properties involve one substance changing into another substance by reacting. An example of a chemical property is the ability of chlorine gas to react explosively when mixed with sodium. The chemical reaction creates a new substance, sodium chloride (table salt). Physical properties refer to different forms of a substance, but the substance remains the same; no chemical reaction or change to a new substance occurs.
Some of the properties that the functional groups provide include polarity and acidity. For example, the functional group called carboxyl (-COOH) is a weak acid. Polarity refers to one end of a molecule having a charge (polar), and the other end having no charge (nonpolar). For example, the plasma membrane has hydrophilic heads on the outside that are polar, and the hydrophobic tails (which are nonpolar) form the inside of the plasma membrane.