Linksdesign Water Supply System

Posted By admin On 23/08/21


Design

Water Distribution System. Typical new system pipe – Thermoplastic or ductile iron – Reinforced concrete in larger mains. Older system pipe – Cast-iron or asbestos cement. Typical distribution pressure of 65 – 75 psi. Designed for less than 150 psi wikimedia. A city water inlet allows RVers to connect to the local municipal water supply. A city water hookup allows you to connect directly to the local municipal water supply. When parked in a campground, you can run a hose from a spigot to a port (also called an inlet) on the outside of your RV. A tube running from the port to your sink then supplies.

Description

This section is from the book 'Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building', by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.

  • Water Supply Design DESIGN OF WATER SUPPLY SCHEME MAIN PURPOSE The purpose of this project is to design the “Water Distribution Scheme” for a society which includes the Diameter of pipes, Lengths of Pipes, Pressure in pipes, Turbine Motor, Storage Tank and Strainer length.
  • 2.1 water demand 8 2.2 water distribution systems 10 2.3 water distribution modeling 11 2.4 pumps 13 2.5 valves 17 2.6 tanks and reservoirs 18 2.7 controls devices 19 2.8 epa 20 3.0 laying out a project 21 3.1 existing data 22 3.2 schematic generally 22 3.3 pressure zones 23.

There are two general methods of supplying a building with water, one known as the 'direct supply' system, and the other as the 'indirect' or 'tank' system.

In the direct system each fixture is connected with the supply pipe and is under the same pressure as the street main, unless a reducing valve is introduced. This system is not always desirable, as the street pressure in many places is likely to vary, especially where the water is pumped into the mains. A variable pressure is injurious to the fixtures, causing them to leak much sooner than if subjected to a steady pressure. Where the pressure in the street main exceeds 40 pounds per square inch, a reducing valve should be used if the direct system is to be employed.

Table VI. Capacity Of Cisterns, In Gallons, For Each 10 Inches In Depth

Diameter in feet.

Gallons.

2.0

19.5

2.5

30.5

3.0

44.6

3.5

60.0

4.0

78.3

4.5

99.1

5.0

122.4

5.5

148.1

Diameter in feet.

Gallons.

6.0

176.3

6.5

206.8

7.0

239.9

7.5

275.4

8.0

313.3

8.5

353.7

9.0

396.5

9.5

461.4

Diameter in feet.

Gallons.

10

489.6

11

592.4

12

705.0

13

827.4

14

959.6

15

1101.6

20

1958.4

25

3059.4

The following factors for changing a given quantity of water from one denomination to another will often be found useful:

Cubic feet X 62 1/2 = Pounds Pounds/ 62 1/2 = Cubic feet Gallons X 8.3 = Pounds Pounds/ 8.3 = Gallons Cubic feet X 7.48 = Gallons Gallons/ 7.48 = Cubic feet

For domestic purposes the indirect system is much better. In this case the connection with the street main is carried directly to a tank placed in the attic or at some point above the highest fixture, and all the water used in the house discharged into it. The supply of water is regulated by a ball-cock in the tank which shuts it off when a certain level is reached. All the plumbing fixtures are supplied from the tank, and are therefore under a constant pressure. This pressure depends upon the distance of the fixture below the tank. The pipes and fixtures in a house supplied with the tank system will last much longer and give much better results than if connected directly with the street main. The tank is also found useful for storage purposes in case of repairs to the street mains, which is often a matter of much inconvenience.

Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 shows the general arrangement of the cold-water pipes of an indirect supply system. On the right is shown the service pipe, which is carried directly from the street to the attic, and then connected with a ball-cock located inside the house tank. A supply pipe is taken from the bottom of the tank and carried downward through the building for supplying the various fixtures. A stopcock should be placed in the supply pipe for closing off the tank connections in case of repairs to the house-piping or fixtures.

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Links design water supply system ppt

A court of thorns and roses books in order. Surface water and groundwater are both important sources for communitywater supply needs. Groundwater is a common source for single homes and small towns, and rivers and lakes are the usual sources for large cities. Although approximately 98 percent of liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, much of it occurs very deep. This makes pumping very expensive, preventing the full development and use of all groundwater resources.

The hydrologic cycle

Water is in constant circulation, powered by the energy from sunlight and gravity in a natural process called the hydrologic cycle. Water evaporates from the ocean and land surfaces, is held temporarily as vapour in the atmosphere, and falls back to Earth’s surface as precipitation. Surface water is the residue of precipitation and melted snow, called runoff. Where the average rate of precipitation exceeds the rate at which runoff seeps into the soil, evaporates, or is absorbed by vegetation, bodies of surface water such as streams, rivers, and lakes are formed. Water that infiltrates Earth’s surface becomes groundwater, slowly seeping downward into extensive layers of porous soil and rock called aquifers. Under the pull of gravity, groundwater flows slowly and steadily through the aquifer. In low areas it emerges in springs and streams. Both surface water and groundwater eventually return to the ocean, where evaporation replenishes the supply of atmospheric water vapour. Winds carry the moist air over land, precipitation occurs, and the hydrologic cycle continues.

Surface water sources

The total land area that contributes surface runoff to a river or lake is called a watershed, drainage basin, or catchment area. The volume of water available for municipal supply depends mostly on the amount of rainfall. It also depends on the size of the watershed, the slope of the ground, the type of soil and vegetation, and the type of land use.

WaterLinksdesign Water Supply System

The flow rate or discharge of a river varies with time. Higher flow rates typically occur in the spring, and lower flow rates occur in the winter, though this is often not the case in areas with monsoon systems. When the average discharge of a river is not enough for a dependable supply of water, a conservation reservoir may be built. The flow of water is blocked by a dam, allowing an artificial lake to be formed. Conservation reservoirs store water from wet weather periods for use during times of drought and low streamflow. A water intake structure is built within the reservoir, with inlet ports and valves at several depths. Since the quality of water in a reservoir varies seasonally with depth, a multilevel intake allows water of best quality to be withdrawn. Sometimes it is advisable, for economic reasons, to provide a multipurpose reservoir. A multipurpose reservoir is designed to satisfy a combination of community water needs. In addition to drinking water, the reservoir may also provide flood control, hydroelectric power, and recreation.

Links design water supply system cody cross

Groundwater sources

The value of an aquifer as a source of groundwater is a function of the porosity of the geologic stratum, or layer, of which it is formed. Water is withdrawn from an aquifer by pumping it out of a well or infiltration gallery. An infiltration gallery typically includes several horizontal perforated pipes radiating outward from the bottom of a large-diameter vertical shaft. Wells are constructed in several ways, depending on the depth and nature of the aquifer. Wells used for public water supplies, usually more than 30 metres (100 feet) deep and from 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 inches) in diameter, must penetrate large aquifers that can provide dependable yields of good-quality water. They are drilled using impact or rotary techniques and are usually lined with a metal pipe or casing to prevent contamination. The annular space around the outside of the upper portion of the casing is filled with cement grout, and a special sanitary seal is installed at the top to provide further protection. At the bottom of the casing, a slotted screen is attached to strain silt and sand out of the groundwater. A submersible pump driven by an electric motor can be used to raise the water to the surface. Sometimes a deep well may penetrate a confined artesian aquifer, in which case natural hydrostatic pressure can raise the water to the surface.