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1. 8th Grade Final Exam: Salina, KS – 1895. Grammar (Time, one hour) 1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.
3. D: A ratio is a relationship between two numbers of the same type.For instance, if the ratio of apples to oranges in a basket is 3:2, then the basket contains 3 apples for every 2 orange. In the given problem, we are looking for ratio between the populations of two cities.

6th Grade – The Number System includes ten activities that help students develop mastery of the mathematical practices within the content area of number sense. For educators for whom the Common Core Standards are important, each activity is referenced to the sixth grade number sense standards. The description of each standard follows: 6.NS.A.1.

The Thing Around Your Neck is a collection of twelve individual short stories. Though the stories do not share any of the same characters or plot, they are woven together by their common themes.

“Cell One” follows the story of a Nigerian boy named Nnamabia. Told from his sister's point of view, the story highlights the corrupt Nigerian justice system. Although Nnamabia is mistreated while imprisoned, his parents are able to bribe the police in order for him to receive preferential treatment. The narrator grows increasingly frustrated at her brother's male privilege, and she retaliates against her parents for showing favoritism towards her guilty brother. The prison experience is incredibly formative for Nnamabia. Though he once relied on his charm, masculinity, and social class advantages, his privileged worldview changes forever.

'Imitation' is set in the suburbs of Philadelphia. The protagonist, Nkem, must grapple with the hardships of immigrating to the United States from Nigeria. Nkem's husband, Obiora, only visits Nkem and their children for two months every year. When Nkem hears that Obiora has a new girlfriend in Nigeria, she must learn to set limits and advocate for herself in her marriage.

“A Private Experience” tells the story of a woman named Chika and an unnamed Hausa woman after a riot over religious differences breaks out in Kano, Nigeria. The Hausa woman offers Chika shelter in her store, and the women's religious and class differences become evident. Despite the religious and ethnic turmoil that aims to divide them, the two women from different backgrounds demonstrate sympathy and understanding toward each other.

'Ghosts' chronicles the aging process of professor James Nwoye. James is startled when he runs into Ikenna Okaro, a colleague who he previously believed had died years ago, on the Nsukka campus. The two discuss what has happened to them in their years apart. Ikenna explains how he suffered during the country's political revolution, and why he fled to Sweden. James tells Ikenna that although his wife, Ebere, has been dead for many years, her ghost visits him often and massages lotion into his skin.

In 'On Monday of Last Week,' narrator Kamara joins her husband, Tobechi, in Philadelphia after living in Nigeria. Kamara has a difficult time adjusting to life in the United States, and she finds that her relationship with Tobechi is not as strong as she thought it was. In order to support herself while waiting for her green card, she gets hired as a nanny for a biracial family. Neil, the child's Jewish father, is neurotic and obsessive about his young son, Josh. Kamara becomes intrigued by Josh's elusive mother, Tracy, a painter who spends her time working in the basement. After Tracy expresses her desire to paint Kamara nude, Kamara becomes obsessed with and attracted to her.

'Jumping Monkey Hill' follows Ujunwa, a young Nigerian writer, as she attends a writing workshop at Jumping Monkey Hill. The writer's retreat is sponsored by Edward Campbell, a British scholar who clearly fetishizes African culture. Each writer chosen for the retreat represents their home nation. Ujunwa grows frustrated at Edward's attitude and judgment. After Ujunwa workshops her short story about a woman working at a bank, Edward critiques her plot for being 'implausible.' This prompts Ujunwa to retaliate against Edward's problematic behavior.

“The Thing Around Your Neck” is told from the second-person perspective. The female narrator, Akunna, wins the American visa lottery and moves from Nigeria to Maine. Akunna has a difficult adjustment to rural American life. One evening, her uncle sexually assaults her, and she leaves on a one-way bus ticket to Connecticut. There, she works as a waitress and struggles to make ends meet. One day, a young white man comes to the restaurant. He has traveled to Africa before, and he shows that he is interested in Akunna's life and background. Akunna and the boy begin to date, but she realizes the differences between herself and the boy. Although he is somewhat knowledgeable about non-Western countries, he romanticizes the lives of poor, foreign populations. Akunna realizes that he is blindingly oblivious about his privilege. Akunna receives a letter from her family notifying her that her father has passed away. She flies back to Nigeria, and it is unsure whether she will return to America or to her relationship.

'The American Embassy' chronicles the story of an unnamed narrator who visits the American embassy in Nigeria in hopes of receiving an asylum visa. The narrator is still reeling from the death of her four-year-old son, Ugonna, who was killed by government officials earlier in the week. The narrator's husband, a reporter, published a controversial article that angered the government. As a result, her husband fled the country and the officials killed their son instead. People advise the narrator to speak about the brutality of Ugonna's death so that she can be granted the asylum visa. However, during her embassy interview, the narrator realizes that she would rather stay in Nigeria and plant flowers on Ugonna's grave. She decides not to 'use' his death to flee the country.

'The Shivering' takes place in Princeton, New Jersey. After hearing about a deadly plane crash in Nigeria, Ukamaka worries about the well-being of her ex-boyfriend, Udenna. She hears a knock on the door, and she is greeted by Chinedu, another Nigerian man who lives in her building. Ukamaka hears that Udenna is safe, but the two fail to reignite contact. Chinedu and Ukumaka become friends, and Ukumaka finds that she can speak at lengths to Chinedu about her breakup and he is receptive. Chinedu reveals that he had a boyfriend in Nigeria. One day, the two friends have a fight about Ukumaka's selfish behavior. They go for weeks without speaking, until Ukumaka knocks on Chinedu's door. Chinedu reveals that he is not a graduate student at Princeton, but rather he is hiding from the government because his visa expired. Ukumaka and Chinedu go to mass together, and Ukumaka vows to help Chinedu through his hardships.

'The Arrangers of Marriage' follows a new wife as she moves to New York City with her husband. The two have an arranged marriage. Following the move, she realizes that her husband does not accept her Nigerian identity. With the help of a new friend in the building, Chinaza learns to stand up for herself.

“Tomorrow Is Too Far” follows the story of a young woman as she reminisces about a summer she spent in Nigeria eighteen years ago. As children, she and her brother would go to visit her father's mother, “Grandmama,” in Nigeria every summer. They pass time with their cousin, Dozie, whom the narrator also has a crush on. The narrator is often made to feel inferior to her older brother by her parents and Grandmama. Grandmama especially favors the narrator's brother, since he will carry on the family name. The narrator is overcome with feelings of jealousy, and she wants to be given attention from her family. One afternoon, she challenges her brother to climb one of the fruit trees in her grandmother's backyard. She then startles him, causing him to slip and fall to his death. She never intended for her brother to die, and the event causes her to retreat from her family. Her parents divorce, and she doesn’t visit Nigeria or see Dozie again until eighteen years later.

'The Headstrong Historian' is a story about the life of a woman named Nwambga whose husband was killed by his cousins. She is desperate to change the course of her life, and she sends her son to Catholic school to avoid any problems with her family. Her son ends up rejecting his mother's traditional Nigerian customs, which deeply hurts Nwambga. Years later, her son has a daughter named Grace. Nwambga realizes that Grace carries the spirit of her husband, and she encourages Grace to embrace traditional Nigerian culture. Grace attends college and publishes books about Nigerian history. At the end of the story, Grace changes her name to Afemefuna, the Nigerian name given to her by her grandmother.

 A Study of James - Lesson 9- James 3:1-12

Chapter 3

The Teacher and the Tongue  (3:1-12)
Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, knowing that as such we will incur a stricter judgment. For we all stumble in many ways. If anyone does not stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body as well. Now if we put the bits into the horses' mouths so that they will obey us, we direct their entire body as well. Look at the ships also, though they are so great and are driven by strong winds, are still directed by a very small rudder wherever the inclination of the pilot desires. So also the tongue is a small part of the body, and yet it boasts of great things. See how great a forest is set aflame by such a small fire! And the tongue is a fire, the very world of iniquity; the tongue is set among our members as that which defiles the entire body, and sets on fire the course of our life, and is set on fire by hell. For every species of beasts and birds, of reptiles and creatures of the sea, is tamed and has been tamed by the human race. But no one can tame the tongue; it is a restless evil and full of deadly poison. With it we bless our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in the likeness of God; from the same mouth come both blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not to be this way. Does a fountain send out from the same opening both fresh and bitter water? Can a fig tree, my brethren, produce olives, or a vine produce figs? Nor can salt water produce fresh.

James warns those who wish to be teachers that there is great accountability associated with the privilege of teaching others. A teacher must be a person who can control his speechsince the words he speaks will influence othersfor good or evil. Much evil can be caused by a man who is careless in what he teaches to others by word or deed.

Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, knowing that as such we will incur a stricter judgment. For we all stumble in many ways.  James gives two reasons why we should be very cautious about becoming teachers:

First, because teachers come under greater scrutiny by God and men  as such we will incur a stricter judgment.

By God, because He will hold us accountable if we mislead others by our words or actions.

By men, because the teacher is in the limelight and is looked to for instruction and as an example of how we ought to live. People expect him to reflect in his life what he teaches in his words. God's truth is often put to shame by teachers who fall into open sin. A man's actions often speak louder than his words, and often the only lesson learned from a hypocritical teacher is how to be a hypocrite.

Second, because teachers are still human and subject to sin we all stumble in many ways. Teachers are not 'super-saints' who have finally and forever conquered sin in their hearts and lives. They, like all other Christians, are forgiven sinners who battle daily with indwelling sin.

Teachers must always be vigilant to avoid stumbling. At the same time, those who learn from them must not place them on an exalted pedestal, holding them to a standard which no one can measure up to. Christ, the Great Shepherd, has given shepherds to His sheep, but we must never forget that these shepherds are themselves sheep.

If anyone does not stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body as well.  A man's words betray what is in his heart. A person who is censorious and critical of others will usually display it first in his speech. A person who is easily provoked to anger will often erupt first in cruel, vicious words. He who is more interested in things of this world will generally let you know by the things he is fond of discussing. But a person who is careful to speak only those words that are edifying and God-honoring probably exercises self-control in his behavior as wellthis is the kind of man who makes the best teacher.

able to bridle the whole body  This is our goal in Christian sanctificationat least from an outward perspective. To achieve this kind of self-control, we must begin with the tongue. To control the tongue, we need to address the heart-sins that lead to tongue-sins.

To address these heart-sins, we need to recognize them as sin (the tongue does a very good job of manifesting them to us), then confess them to God, requesting cleansing and strength to overcome these sins. Finally, we must make it a priority to resist the temptation to fall into such sin in the future.
James presents numerous illustrations to describe the tongue and its influences

 1 A bit in the mouth of a horse. Great, disastrous effects from a small member. 2 A ship's rudder. 3 A flame that sets an entire forest on fire. 4 A world of iniquity, set on fire by hell. 5 Unlike the animals of the earth, the wildest of which can be tamed by man. (see #1) The tongue cannot be tamed by man. 6 A fountain that sends forth both pure and bitter water. The contradiction of a man who blesses God and curses men. 7 A fig tree that produces olives. 8 A vine that produces figs. 9 Salt water that produces fresh water. (see #6)

Now if we put the bits into the horses' mouths so that they will obey us, we direct their entire body as well  A horse is full of wild, self-willed energyuntil we put a bit in its mouth. By controlling the mouth of a horse, we gain mastery over the whole animaldirecting him to go whichever way we wish, and restraining his desire to run wild. Similarly, the man who is able to control his own tongue is able to restrain his passions and keep his whole body in subjection to the Lord.

Look at the ships also, though they are so great and are driven by strong winds, are still directed by a very small rudder wherever the inclination of the pilot desires  Just as a horse can be turned by the bit we put in its mouth, so also a great sailing ship, driven by strong winds, can be turned by a very small rudder to go wherever the pilot wishes it to go. This reminds us what a small member our tongue is, and yet what a great influence it has over our entire being. We should govern our tongues with the same thoughtful care that a pilot uses in a storm to guide his ship safely to harbor.

See how great a forest is set aflame by such a small fire!  How many wildfires are started by a carelessly discarded cigarette or a smoldering match! In dry weather, it takes little more than a spark to set an entire forest ablaze in a towering inferno of intense heat, destroying thousands of acres of trees that will take half a century or more to replace. In the same way, a careless word can provoke anger, pain, or malicious rumors that escalate into a tremendous amount of irreparable devastation.

And the tongue is a fire, the very world of iniquity; the tongue is set among our members as that which defiles the entire body, and sets on fire the course of our life, and is set on fire by hell.  The great evil resources of the tongue justify James in calling it the very world of iniquity. The unbridled tongue seems to know no limit to the varied and treacherous things it will say in order to injure and destroy, to spread the poison of lies and false teaching and to exert its dominion over others. The source of its fiery evil is hell itself  and the prince of darkness for whom hell was created

Matthew 25:41 Then He will also say to those on His left, 'Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels;

John 8:44  You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.

The great wickedness provoked by the tongue, as well as the deceptions that originate from it, can make both the speaker and the hearer more fit for the fire of hell.

For every species of beasts and birds, of reptiles and creatures of the sea, is tamed and has been tamed by the human race  Whether we consider savage beasts, such as lions and bears, or birds, that are easily frightened and capable of flight (and therefore difficult to capture and subdue), or venomous animals, such as snakes, as well as domestic animals, such as horses and dogsall have been tamed by man.

James uses the present tense 'is tamed,' as well as the past tense 'has been tamed,' reminding us that this is something that is commonly doneand not merely some great feat that was accomplished once a long time ago. Moreover, it is done by ordinary men without the need for supernatural miracles, as when God shut the mouths of the lions to protect Daniel, or when the ravens brought food to Elijah, or when the whale swallowed Jonah and spit him out on dry land.

But no one can tame the tongue;  The tongue is much more wild and unruly than any wild beastit simply cannot be tamed by the skill of man, in the way that men can tame wild animals. Instead, supernatural power is requiredthe cleansing grace of God working in the heart of the sinner.

This serves as an indictment of the 'science' of Psychology, which seeks to provide naturalistic solutions to man's spiritual problems. Psychology seeks to modify the behavior through fleshly means, without giving glory to God, or acknowledging our helpless condition apart from His grace. Psychology views humans as mere animalsthe most advanced form of animal, to be surebut an animal just the sameand seeks to tame the human heart via the same techniques which one might use (e.g. rewards and punishments) to tame a wild animal. Yet, James assures us of the very thing that experience also teachesnamely, that people cannot become truly righteous apart from God's miraculous grace.

it is a restless evil  The word 'restless' (Grk: akataschetos) here means 'cannot be restrained, or unruly'. The tongue is not merely evil, but an evil that knows no bounds and cannot be contained, fenced or chained.

and full of deadly poison  The words it issues forth are like the venom of a deadly snake.

Romans 3:13  'THEIR THROAT IS AN OPEN GRAVE, WITH THEIR TONGUES THEY KEEP DECEIVING,' 'THE POISON OF ASPS IS UNDER THEIR LIPS';
With it we bless our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in the likeness of God; from the same mouth come both blessing and cursing  Matthew Henry writes:
We are taught to think of the use we make of our tongues in religion and in the service of God, and by such a consideration to keep it from cursing, censuring, and everything that is evil on other occasions  How absurd it is that those who use their tongues in prayer and praise should ever use them in cursing, slandering, and the like! If we bless God as our Father, it should teach us to speak well of, and kindly to, all who bear his image.  Piety is disgraced in all the shows of it, if there be not charity.
Matthew Henry's Commentary at James 3:9

My brethren, these things ought not to be this way  It should be self-evident that the true religion which honors God is one that acts in a consistently honorable and holy way before both men and God. Such inconsistency is the hallmark of hypocrisy.
• Does a fountain send out from the same opening both fresh and bitter water?
• Can a fig tree, my brethren, produce olives, or a vine produce figs?
• Nor can salt water produce fresh.

Our Lord said it this way:

Matthew 7:15-20 Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves. You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they? So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. So then, you will know them by their fruits.
Even if there were such a thing as a spring that issued forth both fresh and poisonous water at different times, who could trust it? If someone ever died from drinking its water, it would be labeled a poisonous spring, and men would avoid it.Just as a spring of water must consistently yield fresh water, so also the Christian ought consistently to speak words full of grace and wisdom, that are edifying to others and glorifying to God. And, though this may not presently be our consistent practice, it ought to be our fervent goal and prayer to God, as we diligently seek, by His grace, to learn to control our tongue.
Application